The 18th amendment to the Constitution, which banned the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol, was ratified in January 1919. In October of that year, Congress passed the National Prohibition Act, which was nicknamed the Volstead Act after Minnesota Congressman Andrew Volstead, chairman of the House Judiciary Committee. The Volstead Act effectively laid out the rules of prohibition, officially illegalizing the sale of most alcoholic drinks. Ultimately, this legislation hurt the economy by eliminating a large and successful business sector. It also led to an increase in organized crime, as criminals found it extremely profitable to sell alcoholic beverages in secret pubs called speakeasies. Due to these shortcomings, the Act was repealed in 1933.