After World War II, Germany was divided into British, French, American, and Soviet sectors. The city of Berlin, located entirely in the Soviet sector, was divided as well. As the Cold War progressed, thousands of refugees began fleeing Communist East Berlin for Capitalist West Berlin. In early August, 1958, the number of refugees crossing the border surged. In response, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered the border closed. East German police and military units built a massive wall that prevented citizens from leaving East Berlin. Armed guards were ordered to shoot anyone attempting to cross on sight. The construction of the Berlin Wall ramped up Cold War tensions and led to the deaths of more than 150 attempted escapees.