Spanish Revolution of 1936
Germany, Italy and Japan were not the only countries during the 1930s to see a rise in fascism. In July 1936, Francisco Franco and his fascist troops conducted a series of military operations in an attempt to coopt power from a progressive government. In response, left wing groups such as socialists and anarcho-syndicalists (a version of anarchy that embraces collective organization of labor) fought back with general strikes and volunteer militias in what is seen as the closest to a successful workers’ revolt in modern history. Internal conflicts between different groups, as well as interference from the Soviet Union and the Communist party, would eventually result in the failure of the revolution and the ultimate ascension of Franco to power. However, the revolution continues to provide ideas and possibilities which inform anti-fascist and anarchist groups to this day, including Black Bloc and the Industrial Workers of the World.